Q: What’s the difference between a credit report and a credit score?
A credit report contains information that creditors provide to a credit bureau; it details how you have handled your past and current financial obligations. A credit bureau collects data from creditors 24/7, but does not check the accuracy of the information provided by those creditors. There is a cost for creditors to subscribe to a credit bureau service. It is a voluntary system, and creditors are not required to provide this data to a credit bureau. Some creditors report information monthly, some periodically, and some do not report at all. There are three main credit bureaus that provide credit reports: Experian, Transunion and Equifax. (You can obtain a free copy of your credit reports at annualcreditreport.com
A credit score is different from a credit report. Although the three major credit bureaus do provide credit scores based on the credit information they have about you, the credit score is not part of the credit report. Ninety of the top 100 largest financial institutions use your FICO score to determine your credit risk and to decide whether or not to give you a loan or to extend credit. This credit score is actually a calculation developed by the Fair Isaac Company (named for its founders, Mr. Isaac and Mr. Fair), so it is called the “FICO” score. The FICO score predicts future credit risk. It does not reflect your credit history. The FICO score range is 300 to 850. If your FICO score is high, you are considered a good credit risk, and a lender is more likely to lend you money or extend credit at more favorable rates and terms.
Q: Many services and credit bureaus offer free credit scores. Are these always FICO scores?
A: No. Although all scores are generated from data collected by the three major credit bureaus, many scores are generated using different scoring models and not FICO’s. Also, the other scoring models may have different ranges. For example, some score ranges start at 330, while other ranges may end at 840.
Q: Why are my FICO scores different?
A: Though all three credit bureaus base their scores on the data they have on file, “FICO” scores may vary because: 1) creditors don’t always report to all three bureaus, 2) data collection methods and reporting can differ and 3) credit bureaus may install the latest versions of FICO software at different times.
Q: What is an “excellent” FICO score?
A: Before the 2007-2008 U.S. financial crisis, a FICO score in the range of 700 to 720 was considered to be excellent. Because of the large number of defaults during the crisis, creditors and lenders have become more cautious and currently (November 2016) consider scores in the 760 to 780 range to be excellent.
Q: How can I get my FICO score, and do I need to get my scores from all three credit bureaus?
A: You can get all your FICO scores by visiting MyFICO.com. You should request FICO scores from all three credit bureaus. Financial institutions may choose one of the three scores to make their credit decision. Some may choose two and others may choose all three scores. There is usually a cost to get a FICO score.
Q: Is there any other way I get my FICO score?
When you apply for a loan or credit card, the financial institution will pay to get your FICO score. They may share the information with you, if you ask. Some credit card companies provide a free FICO score to their members. Discover.com
provides one free FICO score to anyone.
Q: Where can I get more information on credit reports and scoring?
The best source for information is myFICO.com
. Credit report data collection and credit scoring models change, so it is important to stay informed of the changes that may affect your credit report and score.
This “Law You Can Use” column was provided by the Ohio State Bar Association. It was prepared by Richard Korn, a consumer financial and credit counselor at the Westerville Area Resource Ministry (WARM).